REVIEW: MAIN RAW MATERIALS USED FOR PRODUCTION OF 1ST AND 2ND GENERATION BIOETHANOL

Vasile-Florin URSACHI, Gheorghe GUTT

Abstract

In recent years, many countries have adopted a strategy to replace conventional fuels which are obtained from petroleum refining with biofuels. This has happened due to rising oil prices, unpredictable depletion of oil reserves, increased greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact on the environment. Bioethanol producțion 1stG has caused competition between fuels and food, because the main raw materials used for are sugar and starch raw materials. The United States is the world's largest producer of bioethanol from corn, followed by Brazil which uses sugarcane. In the Europe Union, the main raw materials for bioethanol production are wheat and sugar beet. Therefore, the second generation energy (including bioethanol producțion 2ndG) obtained from lignocellulosic materials (LCM) is gradually attracting global attention. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is the most abundant natural organic source, in huge quantities, at low costs and not part of the human food chain.

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