CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EFFECT OF MODULATED DRY HEAT PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON ESSENTIAL AND NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID PROFILE OF UNSEASONED BREADFRUIT (V. DECNE) SNACK SEEDS

Azubuike C UMEZURUIKE, Joel NDIFE, Chinwe NWACHUKWU

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the functional relationship between Roasting temperature (RT), Roasting time (RM) and Feed quantity (FQ) and the yield of all essential and non-essential amino-acids obtainable through modulated roasting of breadfruit seeds harvested from undomesticated breadfruit tree. Roasted seeds of breadfruit (V. Decne) consumed as snacks represent an important source of protein/amino acids needed for good health in humans. However, these amino acids are needed in certain levels in order to achieve their metabolic usefulness. Processing methods influence their useful concentrations. Central Composite Design at 3 process variables (RT, RM, FQ) and 5 levels (-1.682, -1, 0, 1, 1.682) was used for the experimental runs. Amino acid assay was conducted and the results obtained from experimentation were statistically analyzed. Similar amino-acids but in different contents were present both in raw and roasted seeds. Roasting temperature, time and feed quantity were significant (p < 0.05) terms in the models which influenced the quantum of amino acid, either in linear, squared or interactive terms. Cysteine and methionine showed some heat stability. Other non-essential amino acids were observed at concentration range of 0.29 g to about 7.0 g. Tryptophan was not detected at temperatures higher than a hundred and forty degrees Celsius. The predicted optimum total of amino acids of roasted seed samples was 66.02 % of the total amino acids of the control. The predicted values for optimum process condition were in good agreement with experimental data. Hence, roasting of breadfruit seeds for snacking at the identified optimum variable combination will supply safe and recommended daily levels of amino acids in humans.

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