STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF ZEARALENONE FROM WHEAT AND DERIVATIVES

Sonia GUTT, Georg GUTT, Mariana MAZAREANU

Abstract

In food and fodder naturally contaminated with fungus there are in high concentrations seven groups of mycotoxins: aflatoxins, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, zearalenone, patulin, citrinine and acid penicilic. Mycoestrogens are estrogens produced by fungi. The most important mycoestrogen is zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species of fungi. Zearalenone and its metabolites exert their estrogenic effects through binding to estrogen receptors[1]. Zearalenone is the main phyto-oestrogen and it is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems, especially in swine. Chickens fed with contaminated feed showed zearalenone residues in muscles and liver. The concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol, were determined quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in  placenta, in maternal liver and spleen rats,  α- and β-zearalenol  were transferred into the foetus [2]. The paper analyzed raw materials used in the bakery industry, samples of grain, flour and bran in order to determine the content of zearalenone Specific limits for zearalenone have been regulated in 2007 by the European Union, ranging from 20 µg/kg for infants and small children foods to 75 µg /kg for maize flour (EU Commission Regulation (EC No 1126/2007). Amounts of mycotoxins have been highlighted by ELISA. In analyzed samples were detected exceeded limits for a number of one sample of wheat and one sample of bran, the other samples containing zearalenone below the maximum allowable limit, the analysed raw materials considered as safe for bakery.

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