CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS AND PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS FRUITING BODIES AND THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL PARTS

Natalya CHERNO, Sophya OSOLINA, Aleksandra NIKITINA

Abstract

The  chemical  composition  of  two  edible  mushroom  species  was  investigated.  Agaricus bisporus is a saprotrophic spice. Pleurotus ostreatus belongs to the wood-rotting mushrooms. They are the most popular among mushrooms that are cultivated in Europe. It is found that mushrooms contain carbohydrates,  protein,  lipids,  phenolic  compounds  and mineral  elements.  P. ostreatus  has  more carbohydrates than A. bisporus. Trehalose dominates among the low molecular weight carbohydrates. The main monosaccharide in the hydrolysates of easily hydrolysable polysaccharides is glucose. Only glucose  and  glucosamine  are  detected  in  the hydrolysates  of  hardly  hydrolysable  polysaccharides. Glucan and chitin are present in the composition of this polysaccharide fraction. A. bisporus contains 2.0 times more chitin than P. ostreatus. All essential amino acids are  found  in the  mushroom protein hydrolysates.  Nonprotein nitrogen compounds  are  present  in the  mushrooms.  Lipid  level is  1.4 times higher in A. bisporus than in P. ostreatus. Unsaturated fatty acids  dominate  in the lipid composition. Phenolic  compounds of  mushrooms  include  low  molecular  weight compounds  and melanin.  The  low molecular  weight  phenolic  compounds  levels  in  the  mushrooms  are  the  same.  A. bisporus  contains significantly  more  melanin  than  P. ostreatus.  Mushrooms  differ  in  the  mineral  element  content.
Mushroom  morphological parts  have  the  different  chemical  composition.  Carbohydrates  are  mainly concentrated in the stipes, and protein can be found in the caps. A bisporus caps contain more lipids than  the  stipes.  Morphological  parts  of  P. ostreatus  do  not  significantly  differ  in  this  index.  The
phenolic compounds are mainly concentrated in A. bisporus caps.

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